Incineration plants are also known as waste-to-energy (WTE) plants. The heat from the combustion generates superheated steam in boilers, and the steam drives turbogenerators to produce electricity.
- Refuse collection vehicles transport incinerable waste to the WTE plants. The vehicles are weighed on a weighbridge before and after they discharge their loads into large refuse bunkers. This weighing process enables the WTE to keep track of the amount of waste disposed of by each vehicle.
- To prevent odours from escaping into the environment, the air in the refuse bunker is kept below atmospheric pressure.
- High-capacity rotary crushers are used to break down bulky wastes so that they are suitable for incineration. The waste from the bunker is fed into the incinerator by a grab crane. As the incinerator is operated at temperatures of between 850 and 1,000 degrees Celsius, a lining of refractory material protects the incinerator walls from the extreme heat and corrosion. After incineration, the waste is reduced to ash which is about 10 per cent of its original volume.
- An efficient flue gas cleaning system comprising electrostatic precipitators, lime powder dosing equipment and catalytic bag filters remove dust and pollutants from the flue gas before it is released into the atmosphere via 150m tall chimneys.
- Ferrous scrap metal contained in the ash is recovered and recycled. The ash is sent to the Tuas Marine Transfer Station for disposal at the offshore Semakau Landfill.