Climate Change

Global Warming Potential of Greenhouse Gases under Section 40A of the Environmental Protection and Management Act

Under Section 40A of the Environmental Protection and Management Act (“EPMA”), “global warming potential”, in relation to a greenhouse gas or a blend or mixture of greenhouse gases, means the climatic warming potential of the greenhouse gas or the blend or mixture (as the case may be) relative to the climatic warming potential of carbon dioxide (calculated in terms of the 100-year warming potential of one kilogram of the greenhouse gas or the blend or mixture of greenhouse gases (as the case may be) relative to one kilogram of carbon dioxide), as published and updated from time to time on the Agency’s official website.

For the purposes of Section 40A of the EPMA, the Global Warming Potential (“GWP”) of a greenhouse gas (“GHG”) shall refer to any value specified under the third column of the table below corresponding to the specified substance or chemical formula in the first and second column of that table opposite the value respectively.

 

First Column

Second Column

Third Column

S/N

Greenhouse Gas

Chemical formula of greenhouse gas

Global Warming Potential (100-year)1

1

Carbon dioxide

CO2

1

2

Nitrous oxide

N2O

265

3

Methane

CH4

28

4

Sulphur hexafluoride

SF6

23,500

Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs):

5

HFC-23

CHF3

12,400

6

HFC-32

CH2F2

677

7

HFC-41

CH3F

116

8

HFC-125

CHF2CF3

3,170

9

HFC-134

CHF2CHF2

1,120

10

HFC-134a

CH2FCF3

1,300

11

HFC-143

CH2FCHF2

328

12

HFC-143a

CH3CF3

4,800

13

HFC-152

CH2FCH2F

16

14

HFC-152a

CH3CHF2

138

15

HFC-161

CH3CH2F

4

16

HFC-227ca

CF3CF2CHF2

2640

17

HFC-227ea

CF3CHFCF3

3,350

18

HFC-236cb

CH2FCF2CF3

1,210

19

HFC-236ea

CHF2CHFCF3

1,330

20

HFC-236fa

CF3CH2CF3

8,060

21

HFC-245ca

CH2FCF2CHF2

716

22

HFC-245cb

CF3CF2CH3

4,620

23

HFC-245ea

CHF2CHFCHF2

235

24

HFC-245eb

CH2FCHFCF3

290

25

HFC-245fa

CHF2CH2CF3

858

26

HFC-263fb

CH3CH2CF3

76

27

HFC-272ca

CH3CF2CH3

144

28

HFC-329p

CHF2CF2CF2CF3

2,360

29

HFC-365mfc

CH3CF2CH2CF3

804

30

HFC-43-10mee

CF3CHFCHFCF2CF3

1,650

31

HFC-1132a

CH2=CF2

1

32

HFC-1141

CH2=CHF

1

33

(Z)-HFC-1225ye

CF3CF=CHF(Z)

1

34

(E)-HFC-1225ye

CF3CF=CHF(E)

1

35

(Z)-HFC-1234ze

CF3CH=CHF(Z)

1

36

HFC-1234yf

CF3CF=CH2

1

37

(E)-HFC-1234ze

trans-CF3CH=CHF

1

38

(Z)-HFC-1336

CF3CH=CHCF3(Z)

2

39

HFC-1243zf

CF3CH=CH2

1

40

HFC-1345zfc

C2F5CH=CH2

1

41

3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-Nonafluorohex-1-ene

C4F9CH=CH2

1

42

3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-Tridecafluorooct-1-ene

C6F13CH=CH2

1

43

3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9,10,10, 10-Heptadecafluorodec-1-ene

C8F17CH=CH2

1

Perfluorocarbons (PFCs):

44

PFC-14

CF4

6,630

45

PFC-116

C2F6

11,100

46

PFC-c216

c-C3F6

9,200

47

PFC-218

C3F8

8,900

48

PFC-318

c-C4F8

9,540

49

PFC-31-10

C4F10

9,200

50

Perfluorocyclopentene

c-C5F8

2

51

PFC-41-12

n-C5F12

8,550

52

PFC-51-14

n-C6F14

7,910

53

PFC-61-16

n-C7F16

7,820

54

PFC-71-18

C8F18

7,620

55

PFC-91-18

C10F18

7,190

56

Perfluorodecalin (cis)

Z-C10F18

7,240

57

Perfluorodecalin (trans)

E-C10F18

6,290

58

PFC-1114

CF2=CF2

1

59

PFC-1216

CF3CF=CF2

1

60

Perfluorobuta-1,3-diene

CF2=CFCF=CF2

1

61

Perfluorobut-1-ene

CF3CF2CF=CF2

1

62

Perfluorobut-2-ene

CF3CF=CFCF3

2

Hydrocarbon (HC):

63

Isobutane

HC(CH3)3

1

Hydrofluoroolefin (HFO):

64

(E)-1-Chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene

trans-CF3CH=CHCl

1

Note 1: GWP values are based on Table 8.A.1 of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, except for Isobutane which is based on Appendix Table A-1 of the Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion (2018). GWP Values of less than 1 are approximated to 1.

The GWP of a blend or mixture is calculated as a weighted average, derived from the sum of the mass fractions of the individual components found in the blend or mixture multiplied by their corresponding GWP. For a blend or mixture containing N components,

GWP of blend or mixture = Mass fraction of Component 1 x GWP of Component 1 + Mass fraction of Component 2 x GWP of Component 2 + … + Mass fraction of Component N x GWP of Component N


Example 1: R-408A

R-408A composition: 46% HFC-143a + 7% HFC-125 + 47% HCFC-22

GWP of Blend (R-408A) = 0.46 x 4,800 + 0.07 x 3,170 = 2,429.9 (rounded to 2,430)

Example 2: R-455A

R-455A composition: 21.5% HFC-32 + 75.5% HFC-1234yf + 3% CO2 (R-744)

GWP of Blend (R-455A) = 0.215 x 677 + 0.755 x 1 + 0.03 x 1 = 146.34 (rounded to 146)