May and October 2022 broke weather records
Singapore, 30 January 2023 – 2022 was a wet year for Singapore, following an even wetter year in 2021 . The average annual total rainfall over the island was nearly 19 per cent higher than the long-term average, making 2022 the sixth wettest since 1980. In particular, October 2022 rainfall was the highest for the month of October in the past four decades. The higher-than-average total rainfall in 2022 was partly influenced by persistent La Niña  conditions along with a negative Indian Ocean Dipole .
2 These climate statistics have been detailed in the 2022 Climate and Weather: The Year in Review report released today by the National Environment Agency (NEA)’s Meteorological Service Singapore (MSS). The review summarised the main climatic features and notable weather events that affected Singapore in 2022 and is a prelude to the comprehensive Annual Climate Assessment Report, which will be released in conjunction with World Meteorological Day in March this year. The review is available on the MSS website at www.weather.gov.sg (please refer to Annex A for an infographic on Singapore’s climate in 2022).
3 Two key climate phenomena had some influence on Singapore’s climate in 2022. La Niña conditions prevailed throughout the year, with a negative Indian Ocean Dipole developing around the middle of the year. Both La Niña and negative Indian Ocean Dipole events typically bring wetter-than-average conditions over Singapore and the nearby region.
4 Singapore experienced wet conditions for most months in 2022. The average annual total rainfall (3012.0 mm) is 18.8 per cent above the long-term 1991 – 2020 average of 2534.3 mm. This ranks 2022 as Singapore’s sixth wettest year since 1980. The Changi climate station recorded 2207.8 mm of rainfall for the year, 4.5 per cent above its long-term annual average of 2113.3 mm. Besides the high accumulated rainfall, the year was characterised by many days with rain. The climate station recorded a total of 210 raindays , the third highest after the record high of 222 in 1973 and 1927.
5 The last 10 years from 2013 to 2022 was the warmest decade on record, breaking the previous record set last year in 2021. The mean temperature from 2013 to 2022 was 28.01 degrees Celsius, 0.04 degrees Celsius higher than the previous record from 2012 to 2021 (27.97°C). despite the overall wetter conditions and the influence of the La Niña conditions and the negative Indian Ocean Dipole, Singapore’s annual mean temperature in 2022 was the tenth highest since temperature records began in 1929, tied with 2021, 2018, 2014, 2009 and 2004.
6 Singapore’s annual temperature trends in 2022 are similar to the global trends reported in the provisional State of the Global Climate 2022 from the World Meteorological Organization. Despite temporary cooling from the persistent La Niña conditions, 2022 is expected to be between the fifth and sixth warmest year on record globally.
Notable Weather Events in 2022
Exceptional Wet March and October
7 March 2022 was the wettest March since 2009, with most parts of the island receiving above-average rainfall. The wet weather in March 2022 was mainly triggered by strong solar heating of land areas coupled with convergence of winds over the island. The total rainfall of 134.2 mm recorded on 7 March at Jurong West was the second highest for March in the last 10 years.
8 In October 2022, there was a high number of Sumatra squalls affecting Singapore. Average rainfall for the month was 412.0 mm, making October 2022 the wettest October in the past four decades. The station at Kent Ridge reported more than three times its long-term monthly average. At the Changi climate station there were 27 raindays, which exceeded the previous record of 23 for the month of October.
9 Dry and warm weather in May 2022 led to new temperature records for the month. On 13 May 2022, the highest daily maximum temperature of 36.7 degrees Celsius was recorded at Admiralty, making it the warmest day in May on record for Singapore. This surpasses the previous high of 36.5 degrees Celsius on 16 May 2010 and 3 May 2016. At the Changi climate station, the daily maximum temperature of 35.4 degrees Celsius recorded on 29 May 2022 tied the record for the warmest day in May at the climate station.
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 2021 was Singapore’s second wettest year since 1980.
 La Niña (and El Niño) is a climate phenomenon in the tropical Pacific that affects climate around the world.
 The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) refers to a sustained change in the difference between sea surface temperatures in the tropical western and eastern Indian Ocean. The IOD varies between three phases – positive, negative, and neutral.
 A rainday is defined as a day with 0.2 mm rainfall recorded at a rainfall station.
Infographic on Singapore’s Climate in 2022